South Sudan - South Sudan - Government and society: The creation of the semiautonomous region of southern Sudan was provided for by the 2005 Comprehensive Peace Agreement (CPA) that ended the long-running civil war between the north and the south. SSOA (until September 2018) [182] In November 2014, both parties renew the much-broken ceasefire and IGAD mediators give them 15 days to reach a power-sharing deal, threatening sanctions if they fail. [201], In September 2016, Machar announced a call for armed struggle against Kiir[218] and in November, he said SPLM-IO would not participate in a workshop organized by JMEC, saying the peace agreement needs to be revised. This was attributed to local self-defence militias becoming increasingly integrated and the depopulation of towns resulting in the army having fewer supplies even while the rebels were already adapted to the bush. Egypt had previously rejected the Grand Ethiopian Renaissance Dam that Egypt feels would diminish its share of the Nile River and Ethiopian Prime Minister, Hailemariam Desalegn had accused Egyptian institutions of supporting terrorist groups in Ethiopia. A Dinka lobbying group known as the "Jieng Council of Elders" was often accused of being behind hardline SPLM policies. Dozens of soldiers attacked the compound, killed a journalist, raped, gang raped and assaulted aid workers, and looted and destroyed property. United States Institute of Peace [183][184][185], Arms dealers sold weapons to both sides. [329] In the Equatoria region, Dinka soldiers were accused of targeting civilians on ethnic lines against the dozens of ethnic groups among the Equatorians, with much of the atrocities being blamed on Mathiang Anyoor. [294] In an interview with Martell in April 2018, Kiir blamed the exodus of his own people on "social media" and denied the reports of atrocities, saying it was "a conspiracy against the government". United States Institute of Peace [78][81][95] On 21 December, the government announced its unconditional readiness to hold peace talks with any rebel group, including Machar[100] In a Christmas message, Kiir warned of the fighting becoming a tribal conflict. November 28, 2016, Understanding the Roots of Conflict in South Sudan, Katherine Noel and Alex de Waal Can the UN Protect Its Civilians? [307][308] It is believed that the town was attacked by government troops as it is the home of former Vice President Riek Machar. In July 2014, the UN Security Council declared South Sudan’s food crisis the “worst in the world.” Famine was declared in South Sudan during the first few months of 2017, with nearly five million people at risk from food insecurity. [78] Kiir had also suggested that his rivals were trying to revive the rifts that had provoked infighting in the 1990s. New Humanitarian The honeymoon period is now over for the Agreement on the Resolution of the Conflict in South Sudan, which formally ended the civil war in August 2015. [99], President Salva Kiir spoke on national television on 16 December, having abandoned his signature suit and cowboy hat for military fatigues, and said, while surrounded by government officials, that the coup had been foiled and that it was orchestrated by a group of soldiers allied with the former vice president. IRIN On 10 February 2014, the UN base in Juba was surrounded by armed government troops and policemen, who demanded that the UN surrender Nuer civilians sheltering there. [76] In February 2013, Kiir retired an additional 117 army generals[77] but this was viewed as troublesome in regards to a power grab by others. [321] Much of the worst atrocities committed are blamed on a group known as "Dot Ke Beny" (Rescue the President) or "Mathiang Anyoor" (Brown caterpillar), while the SPLA claim that it is just another battalion. Reuters [239] As Equatoria is the agricultural belt of the country, the number of people facing starvation soared to 6 million. [227][228] After an independent report into UNMISS's failure to protect civilians in the Juba clashes, Secretary-General Ban sacked the commander of the UN force Lt Gen Johnson Mogoa Kimani Ondieki in November[229] and then the general's native Kenya declared that it would pull out of the key role it plays in the peace process[230] and withdrew its more than 1000 peacekeepers from UNMISS[231] before sending the troops back in with the start of the new UN secretary general's tenure. August 14, 2018, South Sudan Forces Killed and Raped Hundreds in Brutal Campaign, UN Says, Nick Cumming-Bruce [317], There were ethnic undertones to the conflict with the SPLM and SPLA, which has been accused of being dominated by the Dinka. As part of the agreement, a semi-autonomous area called the Greater Pibor Administrative Area was created to increase the minority populations within its borders and David Yau Yau was appointed chief administrator, equivalent to state governor. By end of 2014, South Sudan achieved the dubious honor of being ranked the number one failed state in the entire world. [264] In July 2017, John Kenyi Loburon, SPLA-IO's commander of Central Equatoria state switched to join NAS,[265] claiming favoritism towards Nuers in SPLA-IO and then as NAS general in the same month, fought with SPLA-IO in Central Equatoria in the first clashes between the two groups. After almost five years of civil war in South Sudan, Kiir and Machar participated in negotiationsmediated by Uganda and Sudan in June 2018. World Politics Review The rebels quickly seized much of the settlement. [263] In the same month, head of the Cobra Faction Khalid Boutros dissolved the Cobra Faction and merged it with Gen. Thomas Cirillo's NAS and claimed opposition groups are in consultation to unite their ranks. Machar said any talks would be illegal because Machar had previously fired Gai. It was reported there was a "crisis" for elephants who were decimated. [246] In the same month, SPLA-IO captured Raja, the capital of Lol State, while state governor Hassan claimed the city was immediately retaken. October 12, 2016, Failing South Sudan: First as Tragedy, Then as Farce, William Davidson [311][312][313][314] 48 of those killed were civilians, while 10 were among the attackers. New Humanitarian Doctors Without Borders lost contact with two thirds of its staff formerly located in Leer. The War in Darfur, also nicknamed the Land Cruiser War, is a major armed conflict in the Darfur region of Sudan that began in February 2003 when the Sudan Liberation Movement (SLM) and the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) rebel groups began fighting the government of Sudan, which they accused of oppressing Darfur's non-Arab population. [68] Days after the declaration of famine, the government raised the price of a business visa from $100 to $10,000, mostly aimed at aid workers, citing a need to increase government revenue. November 10, 2017, South Sudan’s Worsening Crisis Prompts U.S. to Reassess Aid, Matina Stevis-Gridneff [81] The next day heavy gunfire and mortar fire were reported, and[83] UNMISS announced that hundreds of civilians sought refuge inside its facilities[81] Aguer said that some military installations had been attacked but that "the army is in full control of Juba," that the tense situation was unlikely to deteriorate, and an investigation was under way. [262] In March 2017, Cirillo, a Bari from Equatoria, got additional support as SPLM-IO's Western Bahr al Ghazal commander, Faiz Ismail Futur, resigned to joined NAS while there are reports of six SPLM-IO shadow governors from Equatoria defecting to NAS. [321] Adama Dieng, the U.N.'s Special Adviser on the Prevention of Genocide, warned of genocide after visiting areas of fighting in Yei. [326][327] During the fighting in 2016-17 in the Upper Nile region between the SPLA and the SPLA-IO allied Upper Nile faction of Uliny, Shilluk in Wau Shilluk were forced from their homes and Yasmin Sooka, chairwoman of the Commission on Human Rights in South Sudan, claimed that the government was engaging in "social engineering" after it transported 2,000 mostly Dinka people to the abandoned areas. It failed to address the issue of the concentration of power in the hands of the president (which triggered conflict in 2013). September 19, 2018, What the United States Got Wrong in South Sudan, Jon Temin Kiir is an ethnic Dinka, while Machar is an ethnic Nuer. [70] A system emerged during the autonomous period where SPLM leaders used the wealth generated by the oil to buy the loyalty of not only the troops, but the people at large, creating intense competition to control the oil. After independence in 1956, the following half century included a mix of national elections, constitutions, coalition governments, coups d'état, involvement in the Chadian Civil War (2005–2010), islamisation under the influence of Hassan al-Turabi (1989–1999) and the secession of South Sudan (2011). Gun battles broke out near the airport and a UN base forcing the airport to close for safety reasons. [95] Juba International Airport was closed indefinitely;[96] Kenyan airlines Fly540 and Kenya Airways indefinitely suspended flights to Juba after the airport closed. THE CIVIL WAR IN THE SOUTH. [237], Since the July clashes, the fighting spread from the Greater Upper Nile to include the previously safe haven of Equatoria, where the bulk of SPLM-IO forces went for shelter from the clashes in Juba, located in Equatoria. July 28, 2015, Enhancing U.S. Support for Peace Operations in Africa, Paul D. Williams [85] In 2010, Dennis Blair, then United States Director of National Intelligence, issued a warning that "over the next five years,...a new mass killing or genocide is most likely to occur in southern Sudan. Not surprisingly, in the south there were high levels of discontent, which came to a head in 1955-1972 with the First Sudanese Civil War, then again in the Second Sudanese Civil War … The deal, mediated by Sudan and signed in the Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa, reinstated Machar in his former role as vice president. [88] Notably, in the Pibor massacre, an estimated 900[89] to 3000[90] people were killed in Pibor. [310] On 17 April 2014, 58 people were killed in an attack on the UN base in Bor. [274] Awan was accused of plotting a rebellion and was detained but then released following pressure from the Dinka lobbying group, the Dinka Council of Elders. East & North Africa, Independent You who come from outside don't know what that means. CFR Blog, “Africa in Transition” [214] President Salva Kiir and first Vice-President Riek Machar ordered a ceasefire after days of intense violence. the First Sudanese Civil War (1955–1972), the Second Sudanese Civil War (1983–2005), culminating in the secession of South Sudan on 9 July 2011, and the War in Darfur (2003–2010) Kiir replaced Machar as First Vice President with Taban Deng Gai, splitting the opposition, and rebel in-fighting became a major part of the conflict. [222] In the same month, the Cobra Faction of the South Sudan Democratic Movement, now led by Khalid Boutros declared war against the government. [85] Cattle raids between different ethnic groups were an accepted and honorable way to acquire more cattle. October 25, 2017, UN, U.S. Failed to Prevent ‘Ethnic Cleansing’ in South Sudan, Justin Lynch Washington Post [67] In November 2016, SPLM-IO claimed to have taken of the towns Bazi, Morobo and Kaljak. [129] There was also tension at the UN compound in the city as armed fighters had entered it and about 17,000 civilians seeking protection were at the location. [186] The aircraft were flown by Hungarian mercenaries with one of the mercenaries, Tibor Czingali, posting photographs on his Facebook account of bullet holes in his jet. October 12, 2016, Obi Anyadike He also said the violence was started by the presidential guard, which was founded by Kiir and told to report directly to him instead of the military. [83] Several people were also injured during the fighting. [247][248] A counteroffensive by the government starting in late April 2017 reversed most rebel gains,[249] captured the capital of the Shilluk kingdom, Kodok, from Uliny[250] and closed in on Pagak, which had been the SPLA-IO headquarters since 2014. January 8, 2017, How South Sudan Came To The Brink Of 'Ethnic Civil War', A State of Disunity: Conflict Dynamics in Unity State, 2013-2015, Human Baseline Security Assessment for Sudan and South Sudan [70] One consequence of the war's end was the oil fields in southern Sudan could be developed far more extensively than was possible during the war and began to be pumped. [17] One of their disagreements with the government was the alleged provoking of the Murle to fight against anti-government Nuer groups in Jonglei. Why? [166] Later in February, the rebels attacked the strategic government controlled Malakal[167] and the government admitted withdrawal[168] and then, in March, the rebels admitted withdrawal, changing hands for the fifth time. CFR Conference Call ", "South Sudan: 'White Army' militia marches to fight", "David Yau Yau surrenders Cobra-faction to a General linked to the SPLA-IO: Cobra-faction's splinter group", "Murle faction announces defection to S. Sudan rebels", "South Sudan's Boma state violence displaces hundreds", "Top Cobra Faction general defects from Kiir government", "Johnson Olony's forces prefer independent command in Upper Nile state", "Government Questions SPLM/A-IO About The Position Of Gen. Johnson Olony", "S. Sudan's Otuho rebels unveil objectives for armed struggle", "South Sudan General Gathoth Gatkuoth explains to Karin Zeitvogel why he broke with Riek Machar", "Changson dismisses Gathoth Gatkuoth as FDP group splits over advance team to Juba", "S. Sudan army in control of Wau town after heavy gunfire", "S. Sudan rebels accuse government of backing Ethiopian rebels", "It wasn't a coup: Salva Kiir shot himself in the foot", "South Sudan: is the renewed violence the restart of civil war? "[86][87] In 2011, there was fighting between the Murle and the Lou Nuer, mostly over raiding cattle and abducting children to raise as their own. In South Sudan there are a total of 64 different ethnic groups. [85] Furthermore, the antiquated weapons used in cattle raids were not likely to inflict mass casualties. December 2016, Under Fire: The July 2016 Violence in Juba and the UN Response, Center for Civilians in Conflict During the six years period of autonomy, the desire for independence kept in-fighting within the SPLM in check, but disputes arose over how to share the oil revenues. [66] This makes it the world's third-largest refugee population after Syria and Afghanistan. CFR Interview It began on the evening of Sunday, 15 December 2013, at the meeting of the National Liberation Council in the Nyakuron neighbourhood of Juba, South Sudan's capital, when opposition leaders Dr. Riek Machar, Pagan Amum and Rebecca Nyandeng voted to boycott the meeting. [176], On 9 May 2014, President Salva Kiir and Riek Machar signed the second ceasefire in Addis Ababa, a one-page agreement recommitting to the first ceasefire. "[295], NAS became the main antagonist of the government, clashing with the government in the Central and Western part of Equatorial province starting in January 2019, leading to about 8,000 people fleeing Yei State. [58] Following a second breakout of fighting within Juba,[59] the SPLM-IO fled to the surrounding and previously peaceful Equatoria region. [62] In August 2018, another power sharing agreement came into effect. ", Adwok was then placed on a list of wanted politicians, to which he said "this may be my last contribution, because, as I said, I'm waiting for the police in order to join my colleagues in detention. April 12, 2018, A Resurrected Peace Plan Is the Best Hope for Ending South Sudan's Brutal War, Andrew Green [92] Five Ugandan and ten Kenyan citizens were also evacuated from Bor and then Juba before leaving the country. [118] The United States military announced a repositioning of its forces in Africa to prepare for possible further evacuations as the United Nations warned of the planned strikes. [186] In Spain, the police arrested a Franco-Polish arms dealer, Pierre Dadak, at his luxury villa in Ibiza. ", "Mass Graves, Rape Cannibalism in South Sudan", "South Sudan, the state that fell apart in a week", "South Sudan: UN warns of 'social engineering' amid looming threat of genocide", "South Sudan experiencing ethnic cleansing, UN report says", "Hatred spills beyond South Sudan along with refugees", "Gunmen attack on Boma villages displaced residents: Official", "Boma deputy governor says gunmen from Jonglei captured Kotchar", "S.Sudan rebels slaughter 'hundreds' in ethnic massacres: UN – Yahoo News", "Number of children recruited into South Sudanese conflict passes 17,000 – UNICEF", "Rape reaches 'epic proportions' in South Sudan's civil war", "Women and children being raped and slaughtered as South Sudan conflict worsens famine threatening millions", "South Sudan:women and girls raped as 'wages' for government-allied fighters", "South Sudan's Attacks on U.N. Could Imperil Future Peacekeeping", "South Sudan hikes visa cost to $10,000 amid famine", "UN peacekeepers refused to help as aid workers were raped in South Sudan – report", "2nd Norwegian refugee worker expelled from South Sudan", "South Sudan ambush leaves six aid workers dead, UN says", Helicopter that crashed in South Sudan was shot down after rebel commander issued threat, "At least 66 troops dead in South Sudan fighting: Doctor", "South Sudan: At least 500 killed in fighting", "South Sudan clashes 'kill 400–500' after coup claim", "Four hurt as gunfire hits US military plane sent to evacuate Americans from South Sudan", "UN hopes for South Sudan reinforcements within 48 hours", "50,000 and not counting: South Sudan's war dead", South Sudan is dying, and nobody is counting, "South Sudan evacuation aircraft fired on, US troops hurt", "Atrocities prompt mass exodus in Central Equatoria", "South Sudan's forgotten refugees keep fleeing as violence continues", "Uganda's sprawling haven for 270,000 of South Sudan's refugees", "Regional leaders pressure South Sudan leader to end conflict", "Timeline of Recent Intra-Southern Conflict", "A State of Disunity: Conflict Dynamics in Unity State, South Sudan, 2013–15", Sudanese nomadic conflicts (2009–present), Sudanese conflict in South Kordofan and Blue Nile (2011–present), Communal conflicts in Nigeria (1998–present), Lord's Resistance Army insurgency (1987–present), Eritrean–Ethiopian border conflict (2000–2018), Allied Democratic Forces insurgency (1996–present),, Civil wars involving the states and peoples of Africa, Pages using multiple image with auto scaled images, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 1,500,000+ civilians had fled South Sudan and 2,100,000+, This page was last edited on 2 December 2020, at 01:30. Fighting broke out in Pariang on 20 December, when some SPLA troops defected to the rebels. Kiir's Dinka ethnic group has been accused of attacking other ethnic groups and Machar's Nuer ethnic group has been accused of attacking the Dinka. The breakdown of the initial appeasement later led to a reigniting of the north-south conflict during the Second Sudanese Civil War, which lasted from 1983 to 2005. CFR Blog, “The Internationalist” Task Force Program, About In December 2013, following a political struggle between Kiir and Machar that led to Machar's removal as vice president, violence erupted between presidential guard soldiers from the two largest ethnic groups in South Sudan. [147], In Bentiu, capital of Unity State, SPLA 4th Division divided along factional lines with troops, including division commander James Koang, clashed with loyal troops, who retreated from their barracks on 20 December 2013. [296] NAS and FDP also alleged being attacked by SPLM-IO in Upper Nile State. [161] On 23 January 2014, representatives of the Government of South Sudan and representatives of rebel leader Riek Machar reached a ceasefire agreement in Ethiopia. [206] A new rebel faction calling itself the South Sudan Federal Democratic Party (different from but related to the larger similarly named rebel faction led by Peter Gadet, Gabriel Chang and Gathoth Gatkuoth), made up mostly of Lotuko people formed during this time due to growing perceptions of mistreatment by the "Dinka" government and took over a SPLA outpost in Eastern Equatoria. International Crisis Group [194] In January Gathoth Gatkuoth joined with the government but was dismissed by his Federal Democratic Party for doing so. Refugees are allowed to work and travel and families get a 30-metre by 30-metre plot of land to build a home with additional space for farming. January 8, 2018, South Sudan Army Makes Push Against Rebels as Peace Talks Begin, Jason Patinkin and Jina Moore July 26, 2019, The Old Guard Are Killing the World’s Youngest Country, Zach Vertin A Nuer soldier passing by questioned this and a fistfight then ensued between the two and attracted the attention of the "commander and his deputy to the scene." CFR Council Special Report [186] The government's National Security Service in July 2014 signed a contract worth 264 million US dollars with a Seychelles-based shell company to buy 50,000 AK-47s, 20 million bullets and 30 tanks. Supported by: The South Sudanese Civil War (15 December 2013 – 22 February 2020) was a conflict in South Sudan between forces of the government and opposition forces. [325] About 240 Nuer men were killed at a police station in Juba's Gudele neighborhood. On 30 December, South Sudanese government troops clashed with ethnic White Army militiamen and other rebel factions loyal to Machar late on Monday near Bor. [132] By 31 December, the rebels were reaching the center of Bor[133] and by 2 January, Nhial admitted government withdrawal from the city[134] and Kiir declared a state of emergency in Unity and Jonglei states, where rebels controlled the capitals. [72], In 2010, after a disputed election, George Athor led the South Sudan Democratic Movement in rebellion against the government. [50] In October 2016, the rebels attempted to take Malakal[244] and by January 2017, fighting there had led to civilians deserting the country's second largest city. January 28, 2019, South Sudan: ‘The Whole Country is Traumatized’, Sam Mednick This agreement was followed by a peace agreement to end the civil war signed by the government and Machar’s opposition party, along with several other rebel factions. [53][54] Machar denied trying to start a coup and fled to lead the SPLM – in opposition (SPLM-IO). [186] The demand for weapons had a disastrous impact on the elephant population as the rebels slaughtered elephants to sell their tusks on the black market to earn money to buy arms. In December 2013, when South Sudan plunged into a civil war that saw the SPLM regime descended on the Nuer nationality, killing over 20,000 people in … [61], After Machar's flight, Kiir sent his soldiers to rob the Central Bank of South Sudan at night, and put up $5 million US dollars stored in the central bank's vaults as a reward to anyone who could kill Machar. Will South Sudan Make a November Deadline to Form a Unity Government? [355] By March 2016, after more than two years of fighting, some aid workers and officials who did not want to speak on the record said the true figure might be as high as 300,000. Fair use image The Second Sudanese Civil War was an intense 22-year conflict between the central government in Khartoum and the Sudan People’s Liberation Army (SPLA). [80] The local Radio Tamazuj suggested UNMISS were absent from the streets in Juba and that December 2013's president of the UN Security Council had announced that the peacekeepers would not intervene in the fighting. [207] In February 2016, Dinka SPLA soldiers attacked a UN camp targeting Nuer and Shilluk who accused the government of annexing parts of their ancestral land. 2018 brought an increase in regional and international pressure on President Salva Kiir and opposition leader and former Vice President Riek Machar to reach an agreement to end the conflict, including targeted sanctions from the United States and a UN arms embargo. October 29, 2018, South Sudan’s Civil War and Conflict Dynamics in the Red Sea, Payton Knopf The government initially opposed the move, claiming a violation of sovereignty. A peace agreement known as the "Compromise Peace Agreement" was signed in August 2015. Illegal roadblocks prevent the free movement of people and goods. [277], The United States put additional pressure on Juba by successfully passing an arms embargo on South Sudan in July 2018 through UN Security Council, following a 2016 failure, with Russia and China abstaining from voting this time. Reuters 4.1 The Events. [120], On 22 December 2013, U.S. and Nigerian envoys were on their way to Juba to try to negotiate a solution. April 24, 2017, Katherine Almquist Knopf CFR Blog, “Africa in Transition” New York Times About 86% of the refugees are women and children. Brigadier General Lemi Lomukaya (front R) of the Sudan People’s Liberation Movement-in-Opposition (SPLM-IO), a South Sudanese antigovernment force, poses with rebels at a base in Birigo, on the South Sudanese side of the border with Uganda, on September 22, 2018. In fact, they are the ones rampaging Juba, looting and shooting to kill any Nuer in the residential neighbourhoods. [339] Martell described the rampant sexual violence as not incidental to the war, but an integral and central part of the strategies of both sides, as "a tool for ethnic cleansing, as a means of humiliation and revenge". His faction signed a cease-fire with the government in 2011 and his militia was reintegrated into the army but he then defected again in 2012. [224] With a resolution threatening an arms embargo if it blocked the new deployment, the government accepted the move with conditions such as the troops not being from neighboring countries, claiming they have interests at stake. [302] Disarmament campaigns led by the government has led to resistance, with clashes killing more than 100 people in two days in north-central Tonj in August 2020. [64], About 400,000 people were estimated to have been killed in the war by April 2018, including notable atrocities such as the 2014 Bentiu massacre. The mutinies were suppressed, though survivors fled the towns and began an uncoordinated insurgency in rural areas. IRIN Our cows are everything, because without them how do we survive? [67] In February 2017, famine was declared in Unity state by the government and the United Nations, the first declaration of famine anywhere in the world in six years. [105] On 23 December, Aguer said the army was on its way to Jonglei and Unity to retake territory. SSNDA and SSOMA (until Jan. 2020) September 14, 2016, President Obama Discusses South Sudan in Addis, John Campbell [341] The UN peacekeepers from China who were supposed to be guarding the Terrain Hotel camp did nothing, despite being only a 3-minute walk away from the hotel. May 8, 2019. [116] South Sudan blamed the rebels for the incident. Taken at face value ] Information Minister Micheal Makuei Leuth claimed that the south sudanese civil war period in of! 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